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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Dec;18 Suppl 7:38-52. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12040.

ESCMID* guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: prevention and management of invasive infections in neonates and children caused by Candida spp.

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Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE, United Kingdom.


Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a relatively common syndrome in neonates and children and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These guidelines provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of IC in neonates and children. Appropriate agents for the prevention of IC in neonates at high risk include fluconazole (A-I), nystatin (B-II) or lactoferrin ± Lactobacillus (B-II). The treatment of IC in neonates is complicated by the high likelihood of disseminated disease, including the possibility of infection within the central nervous system. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (B-II), liposomal amphotericin B (B-II), amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) (C-II), fluconazole (B-II), micafungin (B-II) and caspofungin (C-II) can all be potentially used. Recommendations for the prevention of IC in children are largely extrapolated from studies performed in adults with concomitant pharmacokinetic data and models in children. For allogeneic HSCT recipients, fluconazole (A-I), voriconazole (A-I), micafungin (A-I), itraconazole (B-II) and posaconazole (B-II) can all be used. Similar recommendations are made for the prevention of IC in children in other risk groups. With several exceptions, recommendations for the treatment of IC in children are extrapolated from adult studies, with concomitant pharmacokinetic studies. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (C-I), liposomal amphotericin B (A-I), ABLC (B-II), micafungin (A-I), caspofungin (A-I), anidulafungin (B-II), fluconazole (B-I) and voriconazole (B-I) can all be used.

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