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Expert Rev Respir Med. 2012 Nov;6(5):533-55. doi: 10.1586/ers.12.45.

Management and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

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Department of Pharmacy, Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, MA 01805, USA.


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens is a leading healthcare-associated infection in mechanically ventilated patients. The incidence of VAP due to MDR pathogens has increased significantly in the last decade. Risk factors for VAP due to MDR organisms include advanced age, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure, increased severity of illness, previous hospitalization or residence in a chronic care facility and prolonged duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and several different species of Gram-negative bacteria can cause MDR VAP. Especially difficult Gram-negative bacteria include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteraciae and extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria. Proper management includes selecting appropriate antibiotics, optimizing dosing and using timely de-escalation based on antiimicrobial sensitivity data. Evidence-based strategies to prevent VAP that incorporate multidisciplinary staff education and collaboration are essential to reduce the burden of this disease and associated healthcare costs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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