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Development. 2012 Dec 1;139(23):4330-40. doi: 10.1242/dev.086116.

Epigenetic reprogramming in somatic cells induced by extract from germinal vesicle stage pig oocytes.

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Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Animal Bioscience and Biotechnology/Animal Resources Research Center, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Korea.


Genomic reprogramming factors in the cytoplasm of germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes have been shown to improve the efficiency of producing cloned mouse offspring through the exposure of nuclei to a GV cytoplasmic extract prior to somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to enucleated oocytes. Here, we developed an extract of GV stage pig oocytes (GVcyto-extract) to investigate epigenetic reprogramming events in treated somatic cell nuclei. This extract induced differentiation-associated changes in fibroblasts, resulting in cells that exhibit pluripotent stem cell-like characteristics and that redifferentiate into three primary germ cell layers both in vivo and in vitro. The GVcyto-extract treatment induced large numbers of high-quality SCNT-generated blastocysts, with methylation and acetylation of H3-K9 and expression of Oct4 and Nanog at levels similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. Thus, GVcyto-extract could elicit differentiation plasticity in treated fibroblasts, and SCNT-mediated reprogramming reset the epigenetic state in treated cells more efficiently than in untreated cells. In summary, we provide evidence for the generation of stem-like cells from differentiated somatic cells by treatment with porcine GVcyto-extract.

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