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Rev Saude Publica. 2012 Oct;46(5):816-24.

[Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey: Portugal-Brazil cross-cultural adaptation].

[Article in Portuguese]

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Departamento de Odontologia Social, Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brasil.



To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for students (MBI-SS), and investigate its reliability, validity and cross-cultural invariance.


The face validity involved the participation of a multidisciplinary team. Content validity was performed. The Portuguese version was completed in 2009, on the internet, by 958 Brazilian and 556 Portuguese university students from the urban area. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using as fit indices: the χ²/df, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). To verify the stability of the factor solution according to the original English version, cross-validation was performed in 2/3 of the total sample and replicated in the remaining 1/3. Convergent validity was estimated by the average variance extracted and composite reliability. The discriminant validity was assessed, and the internal consistency was estimated by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Concurrent validity was estimated by the correlational analysis of the mean scores of the Portuguese version and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and the divergent validity was compared to the Beck Depression Inventory. The invariance of the model between the Brazilian and the Portuguese samples was assessed.


The three-factor model of Exhaustion, Disengagement and Efficacy showed good fit (c 2/df = 8.498, CFI = 0.916, GFI = 0.902, RMSEA = 0.086). The factor structure was stable (λ:χ²dif = 11.383, p = 0.50; Cov: χ²dif = 6.479, p = 0.372; Residues: χ²dif = 21.514, p = 0.121). Adequate convergent validity (VEM = 0.45;0.64, CC = 0.82;0.88), discriminant (ρ² = 0.06;0.33) and internal consistency (α = 0.83;0.88) were observed. The concurrent validity of the Portuguese version with the Copenhagen Inventory was adequate (r = 0.21, 0.74). The assessment of the divergent validity was impaired by the approach of the theoretical concept of the dimensions Exhaustion and Disengagement of the Portuguese version with the Beck Depression Inventory. Invariance of the instrument between the Brazilian and Portuguese samples was not observed (λ:χ²dif = 84.768, p<0.001; Cov: χ²dif = 129.206, p < 0.001; Residues: χ²dif = 518.760, p < 0.001).


The Portuguese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for students showed adequate reliability and validity, but its factor structure was not invariant between the countries, indicating the absence of cross-cultural stability.

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