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Pediatr Neurol. 2012 Dec;47(6):436-42. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2012.07.011.

Predisposing factors of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in acute childhood leukemia.

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1
Department of Pediatrics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Abstract

A retrospective chart review was performed on 19 patients aged <18 years who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as a complication during treatment of acute childhood leukemia. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was most often observed during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction chemotherapy (n = 9, 47.4%) and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n = 8, 42.1%). Among eight patients with the complication of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, five (62.5%) had a history of hypertension. In contrast, among 11 patients with the complication of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, only one (9.1%) had a history of hypertension. Moreover, unlike other leukemia induction chemotherapy, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome developed only in patients who received acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction chemotherapy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome patients required long-term anticonvulsant therapy (n = 9, 50.0%) and manifested intractable seizures (n = 3, 16.7%). Sequelae were evident in long-term follow-up magnetic resonance images (n = 5, 26.3%). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy regimens apparently comprised the main predisposing factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome complicated during induction chemotherapy, compared with hypertension and immunosuppressive agents after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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