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Med Phys. 2012 Nov;39(11):6943-6. doi: 10.1118/1.4762288.

4D cone beam CT via spatiotemporal tensor framelet.



On-board 4D cone beam CT (4DCBCT) offers respiratory phase-resolved volumetric imaging, and improves the accuracy of target localization in image guided radiation therapy. However, the clinical utility of this technique has been greatly impeded by its degraded image quality, prolonged imaging time, and increased imaging dose. The purpose of this letter is to develop a novel iterative 4DCBCT reconstruction method for improved image quality, increased imaging speed, and reduced imaging dose.


The essence of this work is to introduce the spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF), a high-dimensional tensor generalization of the 1D framelet for 4DCBCT, to effectively take into account of highly correlated and redundant features of the patient anatomy during respiration, in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform. The STF-based algorithm is implemented on a GPU platform for improved computational efficiency. To evaluate the method, 4DCBCT full-fan scans were acquired within 30 s, with a gantry rotation of 200°; STF is also compared with a state-of-art reconstruction method via spatiotemporal total variation regularization.


Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that STF-based reconstruction achieved superior image quality. The reconstruction of 20 respiratory phases took less than 10 min on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU card. The STF codes are available at


By effectively utilizing the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy among different respiratory phases in a multilevel fashion with multibasis sparsifying transform, the proposed STF method potentially enables fast and low-dose 4DCBCT with improved image quality.

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