Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Biomech. 1990;23(2):157-69.

A musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity: the effect of muscle, tendon, and moment arm on the moment-angle relationship of musculotendon actuators at the hip, knee, and ankle.

Author information

Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, CA 94305.


We have developed a musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity for computer simulation studies of musculotendon function and muscle coordination during movement. This model incorporates the salient features of muscle and tendon, specifies the musculoskeletal geometry and musculotendon parameters of 18 musculotendon actuators, and defines the active isometric moment of these actuators about the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane. We found that tendon slack length, optimal muscle-fiber length, and moment arm are different for each actuator, thus each actuator develops peak isometric moment at a different joint angle. The joint angle where an actuator produces peak moment does not necessarily coincide with the joint angle where: (1) muscle force peaks, (2) moment arm peaks, or (3) the in vivo moment developed by maximum voluntary contractions peaks. We conclude that when tendon is neglected in analyses of musculotendon force or moment about joints, erroneous predictions of human musculotendon function may be stated, not only in static situations as studied here, but during movement as well.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center