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J Urol. 2013 May;189(5):1757-61. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.10.115. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a prospective randomized controlled study.

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Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



Bleeding is a significant morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy.


A total of 200 patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were randomized into 2 equal groups. Patients in the tranexamic acid group received 1 gm tranexamic acid at induction followed by 3 oral doses of 500 mg during 24 hours, while those in the control group did not receive tranexamic acid. The patient demographics and clinical data of the 2 groups were compared.


Baseline patient demographics were similar in both groups. Mean hemoglobin decrease in the tranexamic acid group was significantly lower than that of the control group (1.39 vs 2.31 gm/dl, p <0.0001). Mean operative time in the tranexamic acid group was significantly lower than that in the control group (48.3 vs 70.8 minutes, p <0.0001). The stone clearance rate was similar in both groups (91% vs 82%, p = 0.06). The blood transfusion rate was lower in the tranexamic acid group (2% vs 11%, p = 0.018), as was the complication rate (33% vs 59%, p <0.0001). Two patients with a solitary functioning kidney in the tranexamic acid group required ureteral stenting to relieve anuria due to clot obstruction.


The use of tranexamic acid in percutaneous nephrolithotomy is safe, and is associated with reduced blood loss and a lower complication rate.

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