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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Nov 30;428(4):475-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.10.083. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Hypothermia-dependent and -independent effects of forced swim on the phosphorylation states of signaling molecules in mouse hippocampus.

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Laboratory of Biosignal Sciences, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, 3-39-15 Showa-Machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8512, Japan.


Forced swim (FS) stress induces diverse biochemical responses in the brain of rodents. Here, we examined the effect of hypothermia induced by FS in cold water on the phosphorylation of FS-sensitive signaling molecules in the mouse brain. As we have shown previously, FS in cold water induced a significant increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα, a neuronal membrane protein, in mouse hippocampus, while such effect of FS was markedly reduced in mice subjected to FS in warm water. FS in cold water also induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) as well as of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), or dephosphorylation of α isoform of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) in the hippocampus. These effects of FS on the phosphorylation of these molecules were also lost in mice subjected to FS in warm water. Genetic ablation of SIRPα did not change the phosphorylation states of these molecules in the brain. Forced cooling of anesthetized mice, which induced a marked increase in the phosphorylation of SIRPα, induced dephosphorylation of αCaMKII in the brain, while the same treatment did not affect the phosphorylation level of MEK and CREB. Hibernation also induced an increase and a decrease of the phosphorylation of SIRPα and αCaMKII, respectively, in the brain of chipmunk. These results suggest that hypothermia is a major element that determines the levels of phosphorylation of αCaMKII and SIRPα during the FS in cold water, while it is not for the phosphorylation levels of MEK and CREB.

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