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Food Chem. 2013 Jan 15;136(2):532-7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.014. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Effect of heat treatments on the essential oils of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle).

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Department of Research and Development, Kuai Kuai Co. Ltd., Taoyuan 320, Taiwan, ROC.


Kumquats (Fortunella margarita Swingle) cultivated in Taiwan are eaten raw or made into candied fruit or fruit tea. For the experiments described in this paper, essential oils were obtained from kumquat peels or whole fruit by cold pressing, steam distillation or heating in water at 90°C for 15 min followed by steam distillation. The volatile components contained in the essential oils were identified by direct injection (DI) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). A total of 43 compounds were identified, of which 37 were verified by DI/GC and 31 by HS-SPME/GC. Hot water heating increased the yields of essential oils from both peels and whole fruit. The principal constituents of the oils were similar except for the minor compounds, including linalool, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, the levels of which increased after steam distillation. The whole fruit also contained higher levels of terpene alcohols.

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