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PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e48606. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048606. Epub 2012 Oct 31.

The repetitive domain of ScARP3d triggers entry of Spiroplasma citri into cultured cells of the vector Circulifer haematoceps.

Author information

1
INRA, UMR 1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, Villenave d'Ornon, France.

Abstract

Spiroplasma citri is a plant pathogenic mollicute transmitted by the leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. Successful transmission requires the spiroplasmas to cross the intestinal epithelium and salivary gland barriers through endocytosis mediated by receptor-ligand interactions. To characterize these interactions we studied the adhesion and invasion capabilities of a S. citri mutant using the Ciha-1 leafhopper cell line. S. citri GII3 wild-type contains 7 plasmids, 5 of which (pSci1 to 5) encode 8 related adhesins (ScARPs). As compared to the wild-type strain GII3, the S. citri mutant G/6 lacking pSci1 to 5 was affected in its ability to adhere and enter into the Ciha-1 cells. Proteolysis analyses, Triton X-114 partitioning and agglutination assays showed that the N-terminal part of ScARP3d, consisting of repeated sequences, was exposed to the spiroplasma surface whereas the C-terminal part was anchored into the membrane. Latex beads cytadherence assays showed the ScARP3d repeat domain (Rep3d) to be involved, and internalization of the Rep3d-coated beads to be actin-dependent. These data suggested that ScARP3d, via its Rep3d domain, was implicated in adhesion of S. citri GII3 to insect cells. Inhibition tests using anti-Rep3d antibodies and competitive assays with recombinant Rep3d both resulted in a decrease of insect cells invasion by the spiroplasmas. Unexpectedly, treatment of Ciha-1 cells with the actin polymerisation inhibitor cytochalasin D increased adhesion and consequently entry of S. citri GII3. For the ScARPs-less mutant G/6, only adhesion was enhanced though to a lesser extent following cytochalasin D treatment. All together these results strongly suggest a role of ScARPs, and particularly ScARP3d, in adhesion and invasion of the leafhopper cells by S. citri.

PMID:
23119070
PMCID:
PMC3485318
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0048606
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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