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J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jan;17(1):98-103. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-17.1.98.

Injectable ammonium chloride used enterally for the treatment of persistent metabolic alkalosis in three pediatric patients.

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1
Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Abstract

Enteral administration of injectable ammonium chloride may offer an effective method for the treatment of persistent metabolic alkalosis, without the adverse effects associated with the intravenous route. This case series describes 3 pediatric patients who received ammonium chloride enterally for the treatment of persistent metabolic alkalosis. The patients were a 2-month-old female infant, a 6-week-old male infant, and a 3-year-old male toddler. Four to 18 doses of ammonium chloride were administered enterally (range, 3-144 mEq/dose). Two of the 3 patients achieved resolution of metabolic alkalosis with ammonium chloride, while 1 patient's condition was refractory to treatment. Resolution of metabolic alkalosis occurred at 4 and 8 days, which required a total weight-based dose of 10.7 mEq/kg and 18 mEq/kg, respectively. No adverse effects were recorded. The use of ammonium chloride injection administered enterally was a safe and effective option in 2 of the 3 pediatric patients with persistent metabolic alkalosis.

KEYWORDS:

ammonium chloride; metabolic alkalosis; pediatrics

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