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J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct;10(4):215-47. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-10.4.215.

New Antiretroviral Therapies for Pediatric HIV Infection.

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1
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy.

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome affect millions of children worldwide. The development of antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Currently, 4 classes of antiretroviral agents exist: nucleoside / nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. A total of 21 single-entity antiretroviral agents and 4 co-formulated antiretroviral products hold Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of HIV-1 infection. However, not all of these agents are indicated for use in patients less than 18 years of age. Since the year 2000, 7 new antiretroviral agents (atazanavir, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, fosamprenavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, tenofovir, and tipranavir) have been approved by the FDA for use in adult patients as part of combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although only 3 of these newer agents (emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, and lopinavir/ritonavir) are currently FDA approved for use in pediatric patients, pediatric clinical studies of the other 4 new agents are currently underway. The purpose of this article is to review these 7 new antiretroviral agents and describe their roles in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection. For each drug, the following information will be addressed: FDA-approved indication and age groups, clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reactions, clinically relevant drug interactions, pediatric and adult dosing, dosage forms, administration, and place in the treatment of pediatric HIV infection.

KEYWORDS:

AIDS; HIV; amprenavir; antiretroviral agents; emtricitabine; enfuvirtide; fosamprenavir; lopinavir/ritonavir; tenofovir; tipranavir

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