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J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Nov;73(5):1074-8. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31826fc780.

Damage control resuscitation: early decision strategies in abdominal gunshot wounds using an easy "ABCD" mnemonic.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery and Critical Care, Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia. ordonezcarlosa@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early damage-control resuscitation (DCR) indicators have not been clearly discerned in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. Our objective was to identify these clinical indicators that could standardize a DCR initiation policy in this subset of patients.

METHODS:

Prospective data collection from January 2003 to October 2010 at a Level I trauma center in Cali, Colombia. All adult (>15 years) patients with abdominal gunshot wounds (GSWs) were included. They were divided into two groups: those who underwent DCR and those who did not. Both groups were compared by demographics, clinical variables, severity scores, and overall mortality. Other scores were compared with our newly devised model using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC).

RESULTS:

There was a total of 331 abdominal GSWs. Of these, a total of 162 (49%) underwent DCR. The overall mortality was 11.2%. Multivariate analysis identified (A) acidosis (base deficit ≥ 8); (B) blood loss (hemoperitoneum > 1,500 mL); (C) cold (temperature < 35 °C); (D) damage (New Injury Severity Score > 35) as significant clinical indicators that aided in the decision process of early implementation of DCR. The Trauma-Associated Severe Hemorrhage (AUROC, 0.8333), McLaughlin (AUROC, 0.8148), ABC (AUROC, 0.7372) scores and our ABCD mnemonic (AUROC, 0.8745) were all good predictors of DCR, and the difference between them was statistically significant (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

We have identified (A) acidosis (base deficit ≥ 8); (B) blood loss (hemoperitoneum > 1,500 mL); (C) cold (temperature < 35 °C); (D) damage (New Injury Severity Score > 35) as significant clinical indicators that aided in the decision process of early implementation of DCR for patients with abdominal GSWs.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.

PMID:
23117373
DOI:
10.1097/TA.0b013e31826fc780
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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