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Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jan;16(1):27-33. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.99689.

Establishing pre-employment vision standards for goldsmiths.

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Department of Optometry, Elite School of Optometry, Unit of Medical Research Foundation, No. 8, G.S.T. Road, St. Thomas Mount, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.



The process of jewellery making involves the goldsmiths working with tiny visual tasks at closer working distances, which demands high visual ability.


To establish vision standards for Goldsmiths.


Visual task analysis was carried out in different Goldsmith workstations. The minimal visual demands of the jobs were determined based on Grundy's nomogram. Depending on the importance of certain visual functions to perform the job, criteria for visual competency was laid down. Visual abilities of goldsmiths were evaluated in order to determine their visual capability status, based on the previously laid criteria. Job competency status of goldsmiths was determined based on the supervisors' grading with respect to the quality and quantity of work. Visual competency and job competency of goldsmiths were then compared in order to establish vision standards.


Visual task analysis was carried out in 91 workstations. The median of working distance, work area, critical size of the task, and illuminance were 23 cm (IQR: 20- 29), 514.5 Sq Cm (IQR: 183-746.5), and 536.5 lux (IQR: 170-536.5), respectively. Visual abilities of 113 goldsmiths were evaluated. 44.7% of goldsmiths were found to be visually competent. Job competency status of 30 goldsmiths was obtained, in which 18 (60%) were found to be highly job competent. Based on the visual demands, vision standard for jewellery makers was developed.


The vision standards so obtained could be used as minimum visual requirements for the entry level Goldsmiths.


Goldsmith; jewellery maker; job competency; vision standard; visual competency

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