Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1;8(11):1654-8. doi: 10.4161/hv.21978. Epub 2012 Oct 30.

Co-expression of HIV-1 virus-like particles and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by GEO-D03 DNA vaccine.

Author information

GeoVax Inc., Smyrna, GA, USA.


Here, we report on GEO-D03, a DNA vaccine that co-expresses non-infectious HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the human cytokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The virus-like particles display the native gp160 form of the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein (Env) and are designed to elicit antibody against the natural form of Env on virus and virus-infected cells. The DNA-expressed HIV Gag, Pol and Env proteins also have the potential to elicit virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. The purpose of the co-expressed GM-CSF is to target a cytokine that recruits, expands and differentiates macrophages and dendritic cells to the site of VLP expression. The GEO-D03 DNA vaccine is currently entered into human trials as a prime for a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost. In preclinical studies in macaques using an SIV prototype vaccine, this vaccination regimen elicited both anti-viral T cells and antibody, and provided 70% protection against acquisition during 12 weekly rectal exposures with a heterologous SIV. Higher avidity of the Env-specific Ab for the native form of the Env in the challenge virus correlated with lower likelihood of SIV infection.


DNA vaccine; GEO-D03 DNA vaccine; GM-CSF adjuvant; HIV vaccine; HIV virus-like particles

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center