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Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 Apr;65(3):381-98. doi: 10.1007/s12013-012-9442-2.

Bumetanide hyperpolarizes madin-darby canine kidney cells and enhances cellular gentamicin uptake by elevating cytosolic Ca(2+) thus facilitating intermediate conductance Ca(2+)--activated potassium channels.

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Oregon Hearing Research Center, NRC04, Department of Otolaryngology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.


Loop diuretics such as bumetanide and furosemide enhance aminoglycoside ototoxicity when co-administered to patients and animal models. The underlying mechanism(s) is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of these diuretics on cellular uptake of aminoglycosides, using Texas Red-tagged gentamicin (GTTR), and intracellular/whole-cell recordings of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that bumetanide and furosemide dose-dependently enhanced cytoplasmic GTTR fluorescence by ~60 %. This enhancement was suppressed by La(3+), a non-selective cation channel (NSCC) blocker, and by K(+) channel blockers Ba(2+) and clotrimazole, but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glipizide, nor by Cl(-) channel blockers diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), niflumic acid (NFA), and CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide hyperpolarized MDCK cells by ~14 mV, increased whole-cell I/V slope conductance; the bumetanide-induced net current I/V showed a reversal potential (V r) ~-80 mV. Bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization and I/V change was suppressed by Ba(2+) or clotrimazole, and absent in elevated [Ca(2+)]i, but was not affected by apamin, 4-AP, TEA, glipizide, DPC, NFA, or CFTRinh-172. Bumetanide and furosemide stimulated a surge of Fluo-4-indicated cytosolic Ca(2+). Ba(2+) and clotrimazole alone depolarized cells by ~18 mV and reduced I/V slope with a net current V r near -85 mV, and reduced GTTR uptake by ~20 %. La(3+) alone hyperpolarized the cells by ~-14 mV, reduced the I/V slope with a net current V r near -10 mV, and inhibited GTTR uptake by ~50 %. In the presence of La(3+), bumetanide-caused negligible change in potential or I/V. We conclude that NSCCs constitute a major cell entry pathway for cationic aminoglycosides; bumetanide enhances aminoglycoside uptake by hyperpolarizing cells that increases the cation influx driving force; and bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization is caused by elevating intracellular Ca(2+) and thus facilitating activation of the intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels.

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