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Biol Cybern. 1990;62(4):275-88.

Trajectory formation of arm movement by cascade neural network model based on minimum torque-change criterion.

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Cognitive Processes Department, ATR Auditory and Visual Perception Research Laboratories, Kyoto, Japan.


We proposed that the trajectory followed by human subject arms tended to minimize the time integral of the square of the rate of change of torque (Uno et al. 1987). This minimum torque-change model predicted and reproduced human multi-joint movement data quite well (Uno et al. 1989). Here, we propose a neural network model for trajectory formation based on the minimum torque-change criterion. Basic ideas of information representation and algorithm are (i) spatial representation of time, (ii) learning of forward dynamics and kinetics model and (iii) relaxation computation based on the acquired model. The model can resolve ill-posed inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics problems for redundant controlled object as well as ill-posed trajectory formation problems. By computer simulation, we show that the model can produce a multi-joint arm trajectory while avoiding obstacles or passing through viapoints.

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