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  • PMID: 23106214 was deleted because it is a duplicate of PMID: 25106008
J Oral Implantol. 2014 Aug;40(4):438-47. doi: 10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-12-00014.

Longitudinal implant stability measurements based on resonance frequency analysis after placement in healed or regenerated bone.

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1‚ÄČ Division of Periodontology, Catholic University of Sacre Cuore, A. Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, Italy.


Primary stability is an indicator of subsequent osseointegration of dental implants. However, few studies have compared the implant stability among anatomical regions and bone types; thus, not enough data exist regarding the stability of implants placed in regenerated bone (RB). The present study evaluated primary and long-term stability of implants placed in RB and non-regenerated healed bone (HB). A total of 216 screw cylinder implants were placed in 216 patients (98 in HB and 118 in RB, 6 [RB6, N = 68] or 12 [RB12, N = 50] months after tooth extraction). Implant stability was evaluated using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) measured at the time of implant placement (E1), at the time of loading (4 months after placement, E2), and 4 months after loading (E3). Various clinically relevant measurements were obtained, such as implant diameter, length, and location, as well as bone quality. At E1, implant location, bone quality, and experimental group significantly affected implant stability (all at P < .05). At E2, implant location, diameter, length, and experimental group significantly affected implant stability (all at P < .05). At E3, bone quality, implant diameter, length, and experimental group significantly affected implant stability (all at P < .01). Stability for the RB12 group was significantly higher than all other corresponding values; further, the values did not change significantly over time. For the HB and RB6 groups, stability was significantly higher at E2 than at E1 (P < .001) and was no different between E2 and E3. Implant location, length, and experimental group were associated with these differences (all at P < .05). Compared with HB and RB6, higher implant stability may be achieved in regenerated bone 12 months post-extraction (RB12). This stability was achieved at E1 and maintained for at least 8 months. Variables such as implant length, diameter, and bone quality affected the stability differently over time. Implant stability varied in different anatomic regions and with regard to different healing processes in the bone.


dental implants; extraction socket; guided bone regeneration; implant stability; regenerated bone; resonance frequency analysis/RFA; ridge preservation; socket preservation

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