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Pharmaceutics. 2012;4(3):442-78. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics4030442.

Practical dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in small animal models of cancer: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation.

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Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37232-2310, USA ; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.


Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) consists of the continuous acquisition of images before, during, and after the injection of a contrast agent. DCE-MRI allows for noninvasive evaluation of tumor parameters related to vascular perfusion and permeability and tissue volume fractions, and is frequently employed in both preclinical and clinical investigations. However, the experimental and analytical subtleties of the technique are not frequently discussed in the literature, nor are its relationships to other commonly used quantitative imaging techniques. This review aims to provide practical information on the development, implementation, and validation of a DCE-MRI study in the context of a preclinical study (though we do frequently refer to clinical studies that are related to these topics).

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