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Indian J Clin Biochem. 2000 Aug;15(Suppl 1):145-57. doi: 10.1007/BF02867554.

Chromosomal fragility and human genetic disorders.

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Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore, India.


The first report of X-linked mental retardation correlated with the presence of marker chromosome came in 1940. It was in 1990 that the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome was deciphered. This elucidation marked the discovery of a novel process of mutation designated as dynamic mutations, resulting in the expansion of a triplet repeat sequence within the human genome. Subsequently several human genetic disorders involving triplet repeat expansion have been discovered. Almost all the disorders are known to affect the nervous system and/or the brain. This review presents an overview of fragile sites in the genome and the molecular genetics of fragile X syndrome.

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