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Circ Res. 2012 Oct 26;111(10):1363-75. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247213.

Endothelial cells derived from nuclear reprogramming.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Abstract

The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, regulating the tone of the vascular wall, and its interaction with circulating blood elements. Alterations in endothelial functions facilitate the infiltration of inflammatory cells and permit vascular smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction is an early event in disease processes including atherosclerosis, and because of its critical role in vascular health, the endothelium is worthy of the intense focus it has received. However, there are limitations to studying human endothelial function in vivo, or human vascular segments ex vivo. Thus, methods for endothelial cell (EC) culture have been developed and refined. Recently, methods to derive ECs from pluripotent cells have extended the scientific range of human EC studies. Pluripotent stem cells may be generated, expanded, and then differentiated into ECs for in vitro studies. Constructs for molecular imaging can also be employed to facilitate tracking these cells in vivo. Furthermore, one can generate patient-specific ECs to study the effects of genetic or epigenetic alterations on endothelial behavior. Finally, there is the opportunity to apply these cells for vascular therapy. This review focuses on the generation of ECs from stem cells; their characterization by genetic, histological, and functional studies; and their translational applications.

PMID:
23104878
PMCID:
PMC3526979
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247213
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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