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Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Oct;237(10):1117-22. doi: 10.1258/ebm.2012.012151. Epub 2012 Oct 26.

The periprosthetic capsule and connective tissue diseases: a piece in the puzzle of autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.

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Plastic Surgery Clinic, Padua University, Via Giustininani 2, Padua, Italy.


Breast prostheses have been criticized for being responsible for triggering systemic autoimmune disease. The presence of breast implants causes a natural foreign body reaction characterized by the infiltration of macrophages and T-cells. Using PubMed, Medline and eMedicine, we performed a systematic literature review on the stages of periprosthetic capsule formation and cells involved in order to understand which immunological pathways could be responsible for giving rise to, and the development of, connective tissue disease such as systemic sclerosis. We focused on the relationship between tissue growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and T helper 17 or T regulatory cells, as well as on their effects on the different steps of capsular tissue formation. A disturbance in the modulation of these key cytokines may be responsible, in susceptible individuals, for a perpetuation of the inflammatory reaction which can locally lead to capsular contracture and at the systemic level may contribute to triggering autoimmune diseases.

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