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J Dent Res. 2012 Dec;91(12):1160-5. doi: 10.1177/0022034512465292. Epub 2012 Oct 26.

Gene expression dynamics during diabetic periodontitis.

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1
Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

Diabetes impairs the resolution of periodontal inflammation. We explored pathways altered by inflammation in the diabetic periodontium by using ligatures to induce periodontitis in type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Ligatures were removed after 7 days, and rats were then treated with TNF inhibitor (pegsunercept) or vehicle alone and euthanized 4 days later. RNA was extracted from periodontal tissue, examined by mRNA profiling, and further analyzed by functional criteria. We found that 1,754 genes were significantly up-regulated and 1,243 were down-regulated by pegsunercept (p < 0.05). Functional analysis revealed up-regulation of neuron-associated and retina-associated gene clusters as well as those related to cell activity and signaling. Others were down-regulated by TNF inhibition and included genes associated with host defense, apoptosis, cell signaling and activity, and coagulation/hemostasis/complement. For selected genes, findings with microarray and rt-PCR agreed. PPAR-α was investigated further by immunohistochemistry due to its anti-inflammatory function and was found to be up-regulated in the gingiva during the resolution of periodontal inflammation and suppressed by diabetes. The results indicate that diabetes-enhanced inflammation both up- and down-regulates genes involved in cellular activity and cell signaling, while it predominantly up-regulates genes involved in the host response, apoptosis, and coagulation/homeostasis/complement and down-regulates mRNA levels of neuron, retina, and energy/metabolism-associated genes.

PMID:
23103632
PMCID:
PMC3497909
DOI:
10.1177/0022034512465292
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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