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Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Nov;25(3):381-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.08.028. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disabilities in Epilepsy with Electrical Status Epilepticus in slow sleep (ESES) and related syndromes.

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Department of Paediatric Neurology, P D Hinduja Hospital, Veer Savarkar Marg, Mahim (west), Mumbai 400016, Maharashtra, India.



The aims of this study were to assess the cognitive and behavioral problems of patients with Epilepsy with Electrical Status Epilepticus in slow sleep (ESES) and related syndromes and to review their EEG (electroencephalography) findings and treatment options.


Fourteen patients with ESES were evaluated and treated in 2010. Nine children had continuous spike and wave during slow-wave sleep (CSWS)/ESES syndrome, 3 had Atypical BECTS (benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes), 1 had Opercular syndrome, and 1 had Landau-Kleffner syndrome. The duration of ESES ranged from 6 to 52 months. Eleven (91%) children had behavioral issues, most prominent being hyperactivity. Seven of the 13 children (53%) showed evidence of borderline to moderate cognitive impairment. A total of 28 EEG findings of ESES were analyzed for SWI (spike-wave index). Antiepileptic drugs received by the patients included valproate, clobazam, levetiracetam, and others. Eleven patients had been treated with oral steroids and it was found to be efficacious in seven (63%).


Disabilities caused by ESES affect multiple domains. Patients with an SWI>50% should be followed up frequently with neuropsychological assessments. Steroids appear to be effective, although there is a need to standardize the dose and duration of treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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