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Hand Clin. 2012 Nov;28(4):457-68. doi: 10.1016/j.hcl.2012.08.001.

Bone graft substitutes.

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Department of Plastic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, The Miriam and Rhode Island Hospitals, 235 Plain Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA.


Replacement of missing bone stock is a reconstructive challenge to upper extremity surgeons and decision-making with regards to available choices remains difficult. Preference is often given to autograft in the form of cancellous, cortical, or corticocancellous grafts from donor sites. However, the available volume from such donor sites is limited and fraught with potential complications. Advances in surgical management and medical research have produced a wide array of potential substances that can be used for bone graft substitute. Considerations in selecting bone grafts and substitutes include characteristic capabilities, availability, patient morbidity, immunogenicity, potential disease transmission, and cost variability.

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