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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2012 Dec;41(4):679-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2012.08.001. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

The epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in children.

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Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood and adolescence. Multiple registries have assessed its epidemiology and have noted a steady increase in incidence of the disease. This article addresses the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in children aged 0 to 19 years, by reviewing the available, current data from both US and international registries. The prevalence and incidence data by race, ethnicity, age of onset, sex, season of onset, and temporal trends of the disease are presented. Multiple risk factors have been implicated for the increasing incidence in type 1 diabetes, and these genetic and environmental risk factors are discussed.

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