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Diabetes Care. 2012 Nov;35(11):2317-23. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0628.

Rate and determinants of association between advanced retinopathy and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.

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1
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the rate and determinants of concordance between advanced diabetic retinopathy (DR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as assessed by both albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), in the large cohort of the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 15,773) visiting consecutively 19 hospital-based diabetes clinics in years 2007 and 2008 were examined. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. CKD was defined based on albuminuria and eGFR.

RESULTS:

CKD was present in 58.64% of subjects with advanced DR, whereas advanced DR was detectable only in 15.28% of individuals with any CKD and correlated with the albuminuric CKD phenotypes more than with the nonalbuminuric phenotype. Age, male sex, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A(1c), hypertension, triglycerides, previous cardiovascular disease, and, inversely, HDL-cholesterol correlated independently with the presence of any CKD in individuals with advanced DR; correlates differed according to the presence of albuminuria, reduced eGFR, or both. Conversely, factors associated with the presence of advanced DR in subjects with any CKD were diabetes treatment, previous cardiovascular disease, albuminuria, and, inversely, smoking, eGFR, and age at diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Concordance of CKD with advanced DR is low in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and CKD without advanced DR is more frequent than isolated advanced DR, at variance with type 1 diabetes. Factors independently associated with the presence of any CKD in individuals with advanced DR differ, at least in part, from those correlating with the presence of advanced DR in subjects with any CKD and by CKD phenotype.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00715481.

PMID:
23093684
PMCID:
PMC3476898
DOI:
10.2337/dc12-0628
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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