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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013 Mar;19(3):387-92. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.10.014. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Adenovirus viremia and disease: comparison of T cell-depleted and conventional hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients from a single institution.

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Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.


Adenovirus (ADV) is an important cause of viral mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recipients of T cell-depleted (TCD) HSCT are at increased risk for viral infections. We compared the rates and outcomes of ADV viremia and disease between TCD and conventional (CONV) HSCT at our institution. This was an observational study of 624 adult and pediatric recipients of myeloablative HSCT at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between January 1, 2006, and March 11, 2011. Viral cultures and ADV PCR were ordered as clinically indicated. ADV viremia by quantitative PCR assay was defined as 1 or more positive values ≥1,000 copies/mL or 2 or more consecutive positive values. Competing-risk regression analyses were used to identify predictors for ADV viremia. ADV viremia at 1 year after HSCT occurred in 8% of TCD HSCT recipients and in 4.0% of CONV HSCT recipients (P = .041). Among the TCD recipients, ADV viremia was seen in 15% of children, compared with 5% of adults (P = .008). Young age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.0; P < .001) and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 3.2; P = .001) were identified as risk factors for ADV viremia. ADV viremia was predictive of mortality (HR, 6.0; P < .001). ADV disease developed in 3.5% of TCD HSCT recipients and in 0.4% of CONV HSCT recipients (P = .022), with an attributable mortality of 27%. Among TCD HSCY recipients, grade II to IV GVHD was a risk factor for ADV disease (HR, 13; P < .001), but age was not. More than 90% of the cases of ADV disease involved a viral load of ≥10,000 copies/mL. Rates of ADV disease were 10-fold greater in TCD HSCT recipients compared with CONV HSCT recipients, predominantly in patients who developed acute GVHD. The benefit of preemptive therapy for an ADV viral load ≥10,000 copies/mL for preventing ADV disease in TCD HSCT recipients should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.

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