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J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 10;30(35):4360-6. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.44.5486. Epub 2012 Oct 22.

Incidence of HIV-related anal cancer remains increased despite long-term combined antiretroviral treatment: results from the french hospital database on HIV.

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Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, France.



To study recent trends in the incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected patients receiving long-term combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) compared with the general population.


From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we identified 263 cases of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically between 1992 and 2008. We compared incidence rates of anal cancer across four calendar periods: 1992-1996 (pre-cART period), 1997-2000 (early cART period), and 2001-2004 and 2005-2008 (recent cART periods). Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by using general population incidence data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.


In HIV-infected patients, the hazard ratio (HR) in the cART periods versus the pre-cART period was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.28 to 4.98). No difference was observed across the cART calendar periods (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6 to 1.3). In 2005-2008, HIV-infected patients compared with the general population had an excess risk of anal cancer, with SIRs of 109.8 (95% CI, 84.6 to 140.3), 49.2 (95% CI, 33.2 to 70.3), and 13.1 (95% CI, 6.8 to 22.8) for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women, respectively. Among patients with CD4 cell counts above 500/μL for at least 2 years, SIRs were 67.5 (95% CI, 41.2 to 104.3) when the CD4 nadir was less than 200/μL for more than 2 years and 24.5 (95% CI, 17.1 to 34.1) when the CD4 nadir was more than 200/μL.


Relative to that in the general population, the risk of anal cancer in HIV-infected patients is still extremely high, even in patients with high current CD4 cell counts. cART appears to have no preventive effect on anal cancer, particularly in MSM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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