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Front Oncol. 2012 Oct 16;2:143. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2012.00143. eCollection 2012.

The confluence of radiotherapy and immunotherapy.

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Department of Pathology, The Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago Chicago, IL, USA.


Radiotherapy (RT) has been considered a local modality and outcomes have emphasized local and regional control of tumors. Recent data suggests that RT may activate the immune system and the combination of radiation therapy and immune therapies may have the potential to improve both local and distant control of tumor deposits. Below we review principals underlying the concepts of combining both modalities.


T cell; danger signal; immunotherapy; radiation; radiotherapy

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