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Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jan;41(Database issue):D1083-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks960. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

IUPHAR-DB: updated database content and new features.

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  • 1University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK.


The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) database, IUPHAR-DB ( is an open access, online database providing detailed, expert-driven annotation of the primary literature on human and rodent receptors and other drug targets, together with the substances that act on them. The present release includes information on the products of 646 genes from four major protein classes (G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels) and ∼3180 bioactive molecules (endogenous ligands, licensed drugs and key pharmacological tools) that interact with them. We have described previously the classification and curation of data for small molecule ligands in the database; in this update we have annotated 366 endogenous peptide ligands with their amino acid sequences, post-translational modifications, links to precursor genes, species differences and relationships with other molecules in the database (e.g. those derived from the same precursor). We have also matched targets with their endogenous ligands (peptides and small molecules), with particular attention paid to identifying bioactive peptide ligands generated by post-translational modification of precursor proteins. Other improvements to the database include enhanced information on the clinical relevance of targets and ligands in the database, more extensive links to other databases and a pilot project for the curation of enzymes as drug targets.

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