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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Mar 1;5(3):a015081. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a015081.

Secreted and transmembrane wnt inhibitors and activators.

Author information

1
Division of Molecular Embryology, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand-receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease.

PMID:
23085770
PMCID:
PMC3578365
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a015081
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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