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J Forensic Leg Med. 2012 Nov;19(8):457-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2012.04.003. Epub 2012 May 4.

Feasibility of screening for and treating vitamin D deficiency in forensic psychiatric inpatients.

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NHS Scotland State Hospital and NHS Education for Scotland, 2 Central Quay, Glasgow G3 8BW, United Kingdom.


Neuroleptic and anti-epileptic medication, inadequate vitamin D intake and limited solar exposure increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency in high security psychiatric environments. Of the 33 inpatients (40% selected; 21% of hospital population) completing this cross-sectional study, 36% had insufficient and 58% deficient vitamin D. Five patients with vitamin D deficiency had secondary hyperparathyroidism, two of whom had osteopenia on dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry. At 1-year follow up, of the 31 patients eligible, 15 had accepted and continued supplements. Systematic screening is therefore necessary due to mental health and consent issues. Implications of supplementation and grounds access are discussed.

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