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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Nov 13;60(20):2115-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.970. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

The importance of the muscle and ventilatory blood pumps during exercise in patients without a subpulmonary ventricle (Fontan operation).

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of the muscle and ventilatory pumps to stroke volume in patients without a subpulmonic ventricle.

BACKGROUND:

In patients with Fontan circulation, it is unclear how venous return is augmented to increase stroke volume and cardiac output during exercise.

METHODS:

Cardiac output (acetylene rebreathing), heart rate (electrocardiography), oxygen uptake (Douglas bag technique), and ventilation were measured in 9 patients age 15.8 ± 6 years at 6.1 ± 1.8 years after Fontan operation and 8 matched controls. Data were obtained at rest, after 3 min of steady-state exercise (Ex) on a cycle ergometer at 50% of individual working capacity, during unloaded cycling at 0 W (muscle pump alone), during unloaded cycling with isocapnic hyperpnea (muscle and ventilatory pump), during Ex plus an inspiratory load of 12.8 ± 1.5 cm water, and during Ex plus an expiratory load of 12.8 ± 1.6 cm water.

RESULTS:

In Fontan patients, the largest increases in stroke volume and stroke volume index were during zero-resistance cycling. An additional increase with submaximal exercise occurred in controls only. During Ex plus expiratory load, stroke volume indexes were reduced to baseline, non-exercise levels in Fontan patients, without significant changes in controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

With Fontan circulation increases in cardiac output and stroke volume during Ex were due to the muscle pump, with a small additional contribution by the ventilatory pump. An increase in intrathoracic pressure played a deleterious role in Fontan circulation by decreasing systemic venous return and stroke volume.

PMID:
23083785
PMCID:
PMC3636995
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.970
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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