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Am J Dent. 2012 Aug;25(4):215-9.

Azithromycin as an adjunctive treatment of aggressive periodontitis: radiographic findings of a 12-month randomized clinical trial.

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Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.



To compare the 12-month radiographic outcomes following the use of azithromycin or placebo as adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal treatment of AgP.


17 aggressive periodontitis (AgP) subjects 13-26 years old were randomly assigned to receive scaling and root planing (SRP) with systemic azithromycin or placebo. Standardized radiographs were taken at baseline and 12 months postoperatively. Recall visits consisting of oral prophylaxis and oral hygiene instructions were performed during the 12 months. Digital image subtraction analysis and linear bone measurements were conducted by a blinded and calibrated examiner. Student t-tests were used for within and between-groups comparisons. ANCOVA was applied for between-group comparisons of changes in linear bone level adjusting for baseline values.


There were significant gains in linear bone levels in the azithromycin (0.55 +/- 0.10 mm) and placebo (0.42 +/- 0.07 mm) groups between the baseline and 12-month postoperative visits. There were also significant gains in bone density in the two treatment groups. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments in the amount of linear bone gain or bone density during the follow-up period. The use of azithromycin as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of AgP did not result in significant radiographic bone level changes compared to placebo.

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