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Biomed Opt Express. 2012 Oct 1;3(10):2567-78. doi: 10.1364/BOE.3.002567. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Multispectral image alignment using a three channel endoscope in vivo during minimally invasive surgery.

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Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Institute of Global Health Innovation, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK ; Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK.


Sequential multispectral imaging is an acquisition technique that involves collecting images of a target at different wavelengths, to compile a spectrum for each pixel. In surgical applications it suffers from low illumination levels and motion artefacts. A three-channel rigid endoscope system has been developed that allows simultaneous recording of stereoscopic and multispectral images. Salient features on the tissue surface may be tracked during the acquisition in the stereo cameras and, using multiple camera triangulation techniques, this information used to align the multispectral images automatically even though the tissue or camera is moving. This paper describes a detailed validation of the set-up in a controlled experiment before presenting the first in vivo use of the device in a porcine minimally invasive surgical procedure. Multispectral images of the large bowel were acquired and used to extract the relative concentration of haemoglobin in the tissue despite motion due to breathing during the acquisition. Using the stereoscopic information it was also possible to overlay the multispectral information on the reconstructed 3D surface. This experiment demonstrates the ability of this system for measuring blood perfusion changes in the tissue during surgery and its potential use as a platform for other sequential imaging modalities.


(170.2150) Endoscopic imaging; (170.3010) Image reconstruction techniques; (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics

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