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PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47609. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047609. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Evolutionary adaptation of the amino acid and codon usage of the mosquito sodium channel following insecticide selection in the field mosquitoes.

Author information

1
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Abstract

Target site insensitivity resulting from point mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel of the insect nervous system is known to be of primary importance in the development of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. This study shifts current research paradigms by conducting, for the first time, a global analysis of all the naturally occurring mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations, as well as mutation combinations in the entire mosquito sodium channel of Culex quinquefasciatus and analyzing their evolutionary and heritable feature and roles in insecticide resistance. Through a systematic analysis of comparing nucleotide polymorphisms in the entire sodium channel cDNAs of individuals between susceptible and resistant mosquito strains, between field parental mosquitoes and their permethrin selected offspring, and among different mosquito groups categorized by their levels of tolerance to specific permethrin concentrations within and among the mosquito strains of the field parental strains and their permethrin selected offspring, 3 nonsynonymous (A(109)S, L(982)F, and W(1573)R) and 6 synonymous (L(852), G(891), A(1241), D(1245), P(1249), and G(1733)) mutations were identified. The co-existence of all 9 mutations, both nonsynonymous and synonymous, and their homozygousity were found to be important factors for high levels of resistance. Our study, for the first time, provide a strong case demonstrating the co-existence of both nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations in the sodium channel of resistant mosquitoes in response to insecticide resistance and the inheritance of these mutations in the offspring of field mosquito strains following insecticide selection.

PMID:
23082181
PMCID:
PMC3474719
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0047609
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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