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Clin Chim Acta. 2013 May;420:69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2012.10.017. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Oxidized ApoC1 on MALDI-TOF and glycated-ApoA1 band on gradient gel as potential diagnostic tools for atherosclerotic vascular disease.

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L5 Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan.



Atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD), including coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, is the most common cause of death both in the general population and in high-risk patients; patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), uremia (UM), primary hyperlipidemia (HP) have increased risks for developing ASVD.


To identify new biomarkers for early prediction of ASVD, HDL samples from patients with disease (ASVD) and patients with increased risks but no documented ASVD (non-ASVD) were collected for Bis-Tris gradient gel and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) analyses.


Oxidation of ApoC1 was detected specifically in ASVD samples by MALDI-TOF. On the Bis-Tris gradient gel, non-ASVD ApoA1 was displayed into 2 distinct bands A and B. An additional C band of ApoA1 appeared exclusively in ASVD patients. The extraordinary C band of ApoA1 was characterized by high levels of glycation and oxidation. MALDI-TOF analyses of ApoA1 peptides after trypsin digestion confirmed higher levels of glycation and oxidation levels in the ASVD than non-ASVD samples.


Gel identification of the highly-glycated and oxidized C band of ApoA1 and MALDI-TOF detection of oxidized ApoC1 in HDL may provide a new approach for early ASVD diagnosis.

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