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J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Feb;29(1):33-40. doi: 10.1089/jop.2012.0141. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Resveratrol mitigates rat retinal ischemic injury: the roles of matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide, and heme oxygenase-1.

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Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University , Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.



Retinal ischemia-associated ocular disorders, such as retinal occlusive disorders, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma are vision-threatening. In this study, we examined whether and by what mechanisms resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, is able to protect against retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.


In vivo rat retinal ischemia was induced by high intraocular pressure (HIOP), namely, 120 mmHg for 60 min. The mechanism and management was evaluated by electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave amplitudes measurement, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction.


The HIOP-induced retinal ischemic changes were characterized by a decrease in ERG b-wave amplitudes, a loss of choline acetyltransferase immunolabeling of amacrine cell bodies/neuronal processes, and increased vimentin immunoreactivity, which is a marker of Müller cells, together with upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and downregulation of Thy-1, both at the mRNA level. The detrimental effects due to the ischemia were concentration-dependent (weaker effect at 0.05 nmole) and/or significantly (at 0.5 nmole) altered when resveratrol was applied 15 min before or after retina ischemia.


This study supports the hypothesis that resveratrol may be able to protect the retina against ischemia by downregulation of MMP-9 and iNOS, and upregulation of HO-1.

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