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J Tehran Heart Cent. 2012 Spring;7(2):58-64. Epub 2012 May 31.

Frequency and predictors of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal catheterization.

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Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains underdiagnosed due to its nonspecific demonstrations. We aimed to both estimate the frequency of ARAS in high-risk non-selected patients undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal catheterization and possibly identify a predictive model for ARAS using baseline clinical, laboratory, and coronary angiographic variables.


The records of 866 patients aged ≥ 21 years undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal angiography were retrieved for analysis from our computerized database. The degree of ARAS was estimated visually by experienced attending interventional cardiologists. Lesions with an estimated stenosis of ≥ 50% were considered significant. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors predicting the presence and extent of ARAS.


Of a total of 866 consecutive patients undergoing renal angiography in conjunction with coronary angiography (mean age ± SD: 63.06 ± 10.32, ranging from 24 to 89 years), 454 (57%) were men. A total of 345 (39.8%) cases had significant ARAS, 77 (22.3%) of which were bilateral. Using significant ARAS as the dependent variable, six variables were identified as the independent predictors significantly associated with the presence of ARAS, namely age, female sex (male sex was found to be a protector), hypertension, history of renal failure, left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis > 50%, and left circumflex artery (LCX) stenosis > 50%. The Gensini score was not found to be a predictor of the presence of ARAS, but it was more likely associated with a trend towards a more extensive ARAS (adjusted OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01; p value = 0.039). Other independent determinants of the ARAS extent were the same as the predictors of the ARAS presence.


Although risk versus benefit was not tested in this study, it seems that clinicians could consider renal catheterization in combination with coronary angiography particularly in female patients with advanced age and with significant coronary artery stenoses in the LAD and LCX.


Coronary angiography; Renal artery obstruction; Renal insufficiency

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