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Chem Biol Interact. 2013 Mar 25;203(1):129-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2012.09.012. Epub 2012 Oct 13.

Evaluation and computational characterization of the facilitated transport of Glc carbon C-1 oxime reactivators across a blood brain barrier model.

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Astha Drug Discovery & Research, 5284 Randolph Road #262, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.


We are evaluating a facilitative transport strategy to move oximes across the blood brain barrier (BBB) to reactivate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We selected glucose (Glc) transporters (GLUT) for this purpose as these transporters are highly represented in the BBB. Glc conjugates have successfully moved drugs across the BBB and previous work has shown that Glc-oximes (sugar-oximes, SOxs) can reduce the organophosphonate induced hypothermia response. We previously evaluated the reactivation potential of Glc carbon C-1 SOxs. Here we report the reactivation parameters for VX- and GB-inhibited human (Hu) AChE of the best SOx (13c) and our findings that the kinetics are similar to those of the parent oxime. Although crystals of Torpedo californica AChE were produced, neither soaked or co-crystallized experiments were successful at concentrations below 20mM 13c, and higher concentrations cracked the crystals. 13c was non-toxic to neuroblastoma and kidney cell lines at 12-18 mM, allowing high concentrations to be used in a BBB kidney cell model. The transfer of 13c from the donor side was asymmetric with the greatest loss of 13c from the apical- or luminal-treated side. There was no apparent transfer from the basolateral side. The 13cP(app) results indicate a 'low' transport efficiency; however, mass accounting revealed only a 20% recovery from the apical dose in which high concentrations were found in the cell lysate fraction. Molecular modeling of 13c through the GLUT-1 channel demonstrated that transport of 13c was more restricted than Glc. Selected sites were compared and the 13c binding energies were greater than two times those of Glc.

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