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PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47525. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047525. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Modeling the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and microRNA-146 in mucosal immune responses to Clostridium difficile.

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1
Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic bacterium that has re-emerged as a facultative pathogen and can cause nosocomial diarrhea, colitis or even death. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ has been implicated in the prevention of inflammation in autoimmune and infectious diseases; however, its role in the immunoregulatory mechanisms modulating host responses to C. difficile and its toxins remains largely unknown. To characterize the role of PPARγ in C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), immunity and gut pathology, we used a mouse model of C. difficile infection in wild-type and T cell-specific PPARγ null mice. The loss of PPARγ in T cells increased disease activity and colonic inflammatory lesions following C. difficile infection. Colonic expression of IL-17 was upregulated and IL-10 downregulated in colons of T cell-specific PPARγ null mice. Also, both the loss of PPARγ in T cells and C. difficile infection favored Th17 responses in spleen and colonic lamina propria of mice with CDAD. MicroRNA (miRNA)-sequencing analysis and RT-PCR validation indicated that miR-146b was significantly overexpressed and nuclear receptor co-activator 4 (NCOA4) suppressed in colons of C. difficile-infected mice. We next developed a computational model that predicts the upregulation of miR-146b, downregulation of the PPARγ co-activator NCOA4, and PPARγ, leading to upregulation of IL-17. Oral treatment of C. difficile-infected mice with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone ameliorated colitis and suppressed pro-inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, our data indicates that miRNA-146b and PPARγ activation may be implicated in the regulation of Th17 responses and colitis in C. difficile-infected mice.

PMID:
23071818
PMCID:
PMC3469550
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0047525
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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