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Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 2012 Sep;12(5):204-12. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

Magnetic resonance imaging conditional pacemakers: rationale, development and future directions.

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1
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Abstract

Pacemakers and other cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have long been considered an absolute contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a crucial and growing imaging modality. In the last 20 years, protocols have been developed to allow MR scanning of CIED patients with a low complication rate. However, this practice has remained limited to a relatively small number of centers, and many pacemaker patients continue to be denied access to clinically indicated imaging. The introduction of MRI conditional pacemakers has provided a widely applicable and satisfactory solution to this problem. Here, the interactions of pacemakers with the MR environment, the results of MR scanning in patients with conventional CIEDs, the development and clinical experience with MRI conditional devices, and future directions are reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED); implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); pacemaker

PMID:
23071382
PMCID:
PMC3443878
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