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Infect Immun. 2013 Jan;81(1):2-10. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00666-12. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Vitamin D rescues impaired Mycobacterium tuberculosis-mediated tumor necrosis factor release in macrophages of HIV-seropositive individuals through an enhanced Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in vitro.

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1
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. aanandai@bidmc.harvard.edu

Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease represents an enormous global health problem, with exceptionally high morbidity and mortality in HIV-seropositive (HIV(+)) persons. Alveolar macrophages from HIV(+) persons demonstrate specific and targeted impairment of critical host cell responses, including impaired M. tuberculosis-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release and macrophage apoptosis. Vitamin D may promote anti-M. tuberculosis responses through upregulation of macrophage NO, NADPH oxidase, cathelicidin, and autophagy mechanisms, but whether vitamin D promotes anti-M. tuberculosis mechanisms in HIV(+) macrophages is not known. In the current study, human macrophages exposed to M. tuberculosis demonstrated robust release of TNF, IκB degradation, and NF-κB nuclear translocation, and these responses were independent of vitamin D pretreatment. In marked contrast, HIV(+) U1 human macrophages exposed to M. tuberculosis demonstrated very low TNF release and no significant IκB degradation or NF-κB nuclear translocation, whereas vitamin D pretreatment restored these critical responses. The vitamin D-mediated restored responses were dependent in part on macrophage CD14 expression. Importantly, similar response patterns were observed with clinically relevant human alveolar macrophages from healthy individuals and asymptomatic HIV(+) persons at high clinical risk of M. tuberculosis infection. Taken together with the observation that local bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of vitamin D are severely deficient in HIV(+) persons, the data from this study demonstrate that exogenous vitamin D can selectively rescue impaired critical innate immune responses in vitro in alveolar macrophages from HIV(+) persons at risk for M. tuberculosis disease, supporting a potential role for exogenous vitamin D as a therapeutic adjuvant in M. tuberculosis infection in HIV(+) persons.

PMID:
23071135
PMCID:
PMC3536131
DOI:
10.1128/IAI.00666-12
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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