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Paediatr Respir Rev. 2012 Dec;13(4):258-64. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2011.12.001. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Streptococcus pneumoniae--a review of carriage, infection, serotype replacement and vaccination.

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Department of Immunology and Allergy, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia.


Invasive pneumococcal infection remains a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In developed nations, a substantial decrease in the incidence of IPD has been achieved with inclusion of the 7 valent protein conjugated pneumococcal vaccines (7vPCV) into paediatric vaccine schedules. In contrast, the incidence of IPD has changed little in developing nations. This is likely due to poor access to medical care and pneumococcal vaccination, the accompanying HIV and malnutrition burden, and the fact that 7vPCV does not contain the most common serotypes (1,5, 6A) responsible for IPD in many developing nations. The battle against IPD in developed nations is not over, with the rise of non-7vPCV serotypes since routine 7vPCV vaccination. This has necessitated the development and distribution of pneumococcal vaccines containing 3 or 6 additional serotypes. This article provides an overview on pneumococcal carriage and risk factors for IPD, the rise of non-7vCPV serotypes in the era of 7vPCV vaccination, and the current and newly available broader valent pneumococcal vaccines.

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