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J Miss State Med Assoc. 2012 Jul;53(7):216-9.

Current use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator in the treatment of complex pleural processes: a review of the literature and report of 9 cases.

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University of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson 39216, USA.


Intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator is increasingly being utilized to treat complex pleural processes, such as complicated pleural effusions and empyemas, without surgical intervention. This technique is especially useful for patients with numerous co-morbidities or who are poor surgical candidates. We present our experience in treating nine adult patients with intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator for complex pleural processes. Patients were treated with one to eight doses until their condition resolved or surgical intervention was necessary. Seven patients had complete resolution, two patients required surgical intervention, and there were no complications from therapy. A review of all available literature on the use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator in adults is presented, comparing the various methods and techniques used by others.

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