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J Control Release. 2012 Dec 10;164(2):236-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.10.007. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Challenges and opportunities in the advancement of nanomedicines.

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Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.


Nanomedicine-based approaches to cancer treatment face several challenges that differ from those encountered by conventional medicines during clinical development. A systematic exploration of these issues has led us to identify the following needs and opportunities for further development: (1) robust and general methods for the accurate characterization of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition; (2) scalable approaches for producing nanomedicines with optimized bioavailability and excretion profiles; (3) particle engineering for maintaining low levels of nonspecific cytotoxicity and sufficient stability during storage; (4) optimization of surface chemistries for maximum targeted delivery and minimum nonspecific adsorption; (5) practical methods for quantifying ligand density and distributions on multivalent nanocarriers; and (6) the design of multifunctional nanomedicines for novel combination therapies with supportable levels of bioaccumulation.

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