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Ann Thorac Surg. 2013 Jan;95(1):111-7. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.08.004. Epub 2012 Oct 11.

Transapical transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for deteriorated mitral valve bioprostheses.

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Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Heart Center Dresden, Dresden, Germany.



The transcatheter valve-in-valve concept has been described for patients requiring redo valve surgery. We report our experience with transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation.


Since 2008, 301 patients were treated with transapical transcatheter valve implantation. Seven of these patients presented with a deteriorated mitral valve bioprosthesis and underwent transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation. Median age was 79 years. Preoperatively, all patients presented in New York Heart Association functional class III. For risk estimation, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk scores were used and predicted high mortality (mean ± standard error of mean: Society of Thoracic Surgeons mortality, 12.3% ± 2.1%; European System for Cardiac Operative Risk mortality, 58.0% ± 7.0%). Mean follow-up time was 93 ± 29 days, with a total of 21.6 patient-months.


Preoperatively, all patients who had deteriorated bioprostheses presented with severe regurgitation and increased transvalvular pressure gradients (maximal pressure gradient, 23.9 ± 0.9 mm Hg; mean pressure gradient, 11.3 ± 1.0 mm Hg). One patient was identified with mitral valve stenosis (effective orifice area, 0.25 cm(2)). All patients underwent successful transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation. Sizes of previously implanted bioprostheses were 27, 29, and 31 mm; Edwards SAPIEN valves at sizes 26 and 29 mm were implanted. Postoperatively, echocardiography revealed excellent hemodynamics with no remaining mitral regurgitation in 5 patients and minimal regurgitation in 2 patients. Transvalvular pressure gradients decreased significantly (maximal pressure gradient, 13.8 ± 2.1 mm Hg; mean pressure gradient 5.7 ± 0.8 mm Hg, p < 0.05). One patient had fatal pneumonia on postoperative day 34. No patient died during further follow-up, and all patients remained in New York Heart Association class I or II.


Our results demonstrate the feasibility of transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation for treatment of a degenerated bioprosthesis (size range, 27 to 31 mm) using the Edwards SAPIEN valve in sizes 26 and 29 mm.

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