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Anal Chem. 1990 Feb 1;62(3):258-63.

Cross-linked redox gels containing glucose oxidase for amperometric biosensor applications.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin 78712.


Oxidoreductases, such as glucose oxidase, can be electrically "wired" to electrodes by electrostatic complexing or by covalent binding of redox polymers so that the electrons flow from the enzyme, through the polymer, to the electrode. We describe two materials for amperometric biosensors based on a cross-linkable poly(vinylpyridine) complex of [Os-(bpy)2Cl]+2+ that communicates electrically with flavin adenine dinucleotide redox centers of enzymes such as glucose oxidase. The uncomplexed pyridines of the poly(vinylpyridine) are quaternized with two types of groups, one promoting hydrophilicity (2-bromoethanol or 3-bromopropionic acid), the other containing an active ester (N-hydroxysuccinimide) that forms amide bonds with both lysines on the enzyme surface and with an added polyamine cross-linking agent (triethylenetetraamine, trien). In the presence of glucose oxidase and trien this polymer forms rugged, cross-linked, electroactive films on the surface of electrodes, thereby eliminating the requirement for a membrane for containing the enzyme and redox couple. The glucose response time of the resulting electrodes is less than 10 s. The glucose response under N2 shows an apparent Michaelis constant, Km' = 7.3 mM, and limiting current densities, jmax, between 100 and 800 microA/cm2. Currents are decreased by 30-50% in air-saturated solutions because of competition between O2 and the Os(III) complex for electrons from the reduced enzyme. Rotating ring desk experiments in air-saturated solutions containing 10 mM glucose show that about 20% of the active enzyme is electrooxidized via the Os(III) complex, while the rest is oxidized by O2. These results suggest that only part of the active enzyme is in electrical contact with the electrode.

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